Scalpels are commonly used for initial incisions and cutting tissue. These consist of a blade and a handle. Surgeons tend to refer to this instrument by its blade number, which varies depending on the use.

Scissors are used for cutting tissue, sutuer, or for dissection. These can be straight or curved, and may be used for cutting heavy or finer structures.

Forceps are also known as non-locking forceps, grasping forceps, thumb forceps, or pick-ups. These are used to grasp tissue or objects. They are available with teeth (serrated) or smooth tips.

Clamps are also called locking forceps. They are ratcheted instruments used to hold tissue or objects, or provide hemostasis. There are ‘traumatic’ and ‘atraumatic’ options available.

Needles are available in amny shapes and cutting edges, and are used for a wide range of applications.

Suture is used to hold body tissues together after injuries or surgery. These can be absorbable, non-absorbable, and are available in various sizes.

Retractors are used to hold an incision open, hold back tissues or other objects to maintain a clear surgical field, or reach other structures. They can be handheld or self-retaining through a ratcheting mechanism.

Suction tips and suction sources combine to help remove debris and fluid from the surgical field. These are also used to clear surgical smoke.

Staplers are used for reanastomosis of viscera, vessel ligation, and excision of specimens. These can be one-time use, reloadable, manual, or electronically powered.

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